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Table 1 Explanatory variables used in this study (minimum, maximum, mean, standard error), computed for currently forested areas only

From: An improved species distribution model for Scots pine and downy oak under future climate change in the NW Italian Alps

Code Description Range Mean Units Resolution
Bio01 Mean annual temperaturea −0.6–11.1 4.9 °C 30 arcsec
Bio05 Max temperature of warmest montha 10.8–26.7 18.5 °C 30 arcsec
Bio06 Min temperature of coldest montha −10.8–−2.9 −6.9 °C 30 arcsec
Bio07 Temperature annual rangea 21.3–29.6 25.4 °C 30 arcsec
Bio10 Mean temperature of warmest quartera 6.4–20 12.8 °C 30 arcsec
Bio11 Mean temperature of coldest quartera −7.2–2 −2.8 °C 30 arcsec
Bio12 Annual precipitationa 796–1828 1263.3 mm 30 arcsec
Bio18 Precipitation of warmest quartera 22–465 335.6 mm 30 arcsec
GDD Growing degree days above 5 °C 257–2656 1181.2 °C 30 arcsec
GSP Precipitation April–September 437–913 663.5 mm 30 arcsec
AI Aridity index (Bio12 -PET) −638–1252 311.0 mm 30 arcsec
DTM Elevationb 308–2493 1514.3 m a.s.l. 10 m
Slope Slope from DTM 0–44 17.0 ° 10 m
TPI Topographic position Index −3.0–3.1 −0.4 10 m
Southness Linearization of aspect 0–180 97.2 ° 10 m
ATC Accumulated Soil temperature classc 1–3 Dummy 1 km
AWC Available water capacity in the topsoilc 1–3 Dummy 1 km
BS Soil base saturationc 1–2 Dummy 1 km
DR Soil depth to rockc 1–4 Dummy 1 km
ERO Soil erodibilityc 3–5 Dummy 1 km
OC Organic carbon in the topsoilc 1–3 Dummy 1 km
TEXT Soil texture (from coarse to fine)c 0–2 Dummy 1 km
VS Volume of stones in the soilc 0–2 Dummy 1 km
Avalanches Number of avalanche polygonsb 0–3 0.1 Count 10 m
Wildfires Number of fire polygons, 1961–1990b 0–3 0.0 Count 10 m
Erosion Total area subject to landslide or erosiond 0–14523 656.9 m2 500 m
Depop Change in population 1951–1991e −59–135 2.1 % change Municipality
Roads Total road lengthb 0–8485 1812.0 m 500 m
Buildings Total buildings areab 0–40190 1591.8 m2 500 m
VCF Tree cover from Landsat (2001)f 0–99 29.9 % 30 m
NDVI NDVI from Landsat (1987) 0.20–0.66 0.30 0–1 30 m
  1. Explanatory variables in species distribution models are set in italics
  2. aHijmans et al. (2005)
  3. bRegione Autonoma Valle d'Aosta
  4. cEuropean Soil Bureau (1999)
  5. dEuropean Environment Agency (2013)
  6. eISTAT (2012)
  7. fSexton et al. (2013)