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Natural stand structures, disturbance regimes and successional dynamics in the Eurasian boreal forests: a review with special reference to Russian studies

Structure des peuplements, régimes de perturbation et dynamiques de succession dans les forêts boréales eurasiennes : une revue basée sur des travaux russes

Abstract

  • • This review summarizes early stand-scale studies of pristine forest structures, disturbance regimes and successional patterns carried out in boreal Eurasia. We attempt to reveal, characterize and classify stand dynamic types that can be used as templates for nature-based forest management.

  • • The studies reviewed demonstrate multiple successional pathways in stand development in all types of pristine forests. All-aged stands driven by small-scale disturbances are formed over successional development of several hundreds of years. This endogenous development can be interrupted by stand-replacing or partial disturbances leading to successions with even-aged or cohort-structured stands, respectively. In Western Europe, the most common disturbances are windthrows, surface fires and fluctuations in moisture regime; in Eastern Europe and Siberia, the most common disturbances are crown and surface fires and insect outbreaks. Type, return interval and severity of disturbances are strongly influenced by the site conditions and successional stage of a stand.

  • • Based on characteristics of forest stands and disturbance regime, four main types of pristine boreal forest stand dynamics can be distinguished: (1) even-aged, compositional change dynamics, (2) even-aged, mono-dominant dynamics, (3) cohort dynamics and (4) fine-scale gap dynamics. These types can be mimicked in developing scenarios of ecological sustainable forest management in Eurasian boreal forests.

Résumé

  • • Cette revue bibliographique résume les résultats de nombreuses études anciennes sur la structure des peuplements forestiers, sur les régimes de perturbation et sur les dynamiques de succession en forêt boréale eurasienne. Une typologie des modes de succession est proposée pour servir de cadre à une gestion forestière proche de la nature.

  • • Les études analysées montrent l’existence de multiples modes de succession et de développement des peuplements dans tous les types de forêts vierges analysées. Des peuplements mélangés comportant des arbres de tous âges se développent en réponse à des perturbations locales avec des dynamiques de plusieurs siècles. Ce développement endogène peut être interrompu par des renouvellements massifs ou des perturbations partielles qui conduisent à des successions basées sur des peuplements équiennes ou structurés en cohortes, respectivement. En Europe occidentale, les perturbations les plus fréquentes sont les chablis, les incendies de surface et des fluctuations des régimes hydriques ; en Europe oriental et en Sibérie, ce sont les incendies de surface et de canopée, et les attaques massives par des insectes.

  • • En se basant sur les caractéristiques des peuplements et des types de perturbations, nous avons pu identifier quatre types principaux de dynamiques forestières : (1) une dynamique de changement de composition spécifique avec une structure équienne ; (2) une dynamique de domination par une espèce avec une structure équienne ; (3) une dynamique de cohortes ; et (4) une dynamique de trouées locales. Ces types de succession peuvent servir de base pour le développement de scénarios de gestion forestière durable de ces forêts boréales eurasiennes.

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Shorohova, E., Kuuluvainen, T., Kangur, A. et al. Natural stand structures, disturbance regimes and successional dynamics in the Eurasian boreal forests: a review with special reference to Russian studies. Ann. For. Sci. 66, 201 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2008083

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Keywords

  • stand dynamics
  • forest-forming process
  • tree age structure
  • succession
  • nature-based management

Mots-clés

  • dynamiques forestières
  • succession forestière
  • structure d’âge
  • sylvigénèse
  • gestion durable